Cambridge University, August 2018

Distributed Ledger Technology Systems: A Conceptual Framework

Michel Rauchs, Andrew Glidden, Brian Gordon, Martino Recanatini, Francois Rostand, Kathryn Vagneur, Bryan Zheng Zhang

The distributed ledger technology (DLT) ecosystem is currently plagued by the use of inconsistent definitions and lack of standardised terminology. This report sets out to provide a common terminology and framework designed to serve as a multi-dimensional tool for policymakers, industry participants, researchers and investors to gain a better understanding of the characteristics and inner workings of a DLT system, and the roles that various actors play in the system Specifically, the report lists five key characteristics that a DLT system must be capable of ensuring. The report also clarifies the forms of data within a DLT structure, by classifying the data as 'transactions', 'logs', 'records', 'journals' and 'ledger' – based on the extent the data has been processed by a DLT system's network. The final outcome - the 'ledger' - is defined as a set of records 'held in common by a substantial proportion of network participants'. A conceptual framework is presented that divides a DLT system into three main layers – protocol, network, and data – which can be further subdivided into a set of components and processes.

I had the pleasure of contributing in a very small way to this work.

This work can be found on SSRN.

Oxford University, June 2016

Cryptocurrency and Capital Controls

Jill Carlson


Entrance to the Espacio Bitcoin, Buenos Aires

This academic research represents an exploratory analysis of the uses of cryptocurrency and the reasons it gains traction in some areas more readily than others. I focus on the hypothesis that the adoption of cryptocurrency in Argentina was driven by the presence of long-term capital controls. To test this, I conducted interviews with market players to learn what has and has not changed for them following the relaxation of capital control policies in 2016. The main conclusion is that cryptocurrency can and has been used to evade capital controls. However, cryptocurrency's popularity in Argentina is also attributable to more than the country's history of capital controls or high rates of inflation. Other factors, including tax rate, levels of corruption, and history of multiple exchange rates have contributed to adoption of this technology.

This work can be found on SSRN.

Harvard University, March 2012

The Gods and Governors of the Roman Empire

Jill Carlson

Religion has always been a rallying point within politics and government. Rulers legitimize themselves under a Mandate of Heaven, incorporate patriotic ideology into religious ritual, confront issues of tolerance under the law, and grapple with problems posed by extremist religious doctrine. The interactions of Roman governors with religion were shaped by their political motivations as they sought to maintain their power, the peace of their province, the support of the people, and the favor of the emperor.

The Gods and Governors of the Roman Empire

It turns out that studying the use of religion as a propaganda technique in the governance of Ancient Rome has been surprisingly useful in my career in cryptocurrency.